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The number of inhabitants as of January 2018 is 1 328 302 people, which it 0.9 percent of the total population of Russia.

Comparing to the most Russian regions, Khabarovsk krai is more urbanized, the portion of the urban population is 82.13 %, rural — 17.87 %. The average density of the population in the region is abound 1.7 people/km² (in Russia – 8.6). In the northern districts of the region it is below 0.1-0.2 people/km², which corresponds to the indicators of the Extreme North. Only the more southern, developed districts are more thickly settled —1 to 6 people per km².

The largest cities in the region by population are Khabarovsk (the largest regional city, with population of 618 150 of people) and Komsomolsk-on-Amur (second largest, with population of 248 254 of people). Out of the 5 cities of the krai left the 4 are small and the1 is medium-sized.

Khabarovsk krai is notable for multinational representation of inhabitants, where the Russians dominate (91.8%). In the region also there are the Ukrainians (2.1%), the Koreans (0.6 %), the Tatars (0.6 %), the Belarusians (0.4 %), the Chinese (0.3 %), the Azerbaijanis (0.3 %), the Uzbeks (0.2 %), the Jews (0.2 %), the Armenians (0.2 %).

Among 25 small indigenous peoples of the region there are: the Nanais (0.8 %), the Evenks (0.4 %), the Ulchis (0.2 %), the Nivkhs (0.2 %), the Evens (0.04 %), the Negidals (0.04 %), the Orchis (0.03 %) and etc.

Generally, Khabarovsk krai is one of the most under-populated regions of Russia, which is conditioned, firstly, by general economic decline of the Post-Soviet time, and, secondly, by severity of the local climate comparable to the regions of the Extreme North.